European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 2020-09-18T16:27:26-04:00 Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Gestational Exposure to Cadmium and Dimethoate Mixture Modifies Fetal Programming in Rats During Development 2020-09-05T03:44:29-04:00 Fábio Anselmo Daniel França Horta Antonio Francisco Godinho <p>The combined effects of environmental agents, as metals and pesticides, on human health, need be evaluated because human exposition occurs generally through mixtures, while regulatory assessment of neurotoxicity by these compounds is currently performed only on selected single substances. In the present study the effects of maternal exposure to 10 mg cadmium/l (as cadmium acetate) in drinking water and dimethoate 4 mg/kg (via gavage) during gestation on the development of motor activity (locomotion and motor coordination) and social behavior (anxiety-like behavior and aggressivity) were studied. The importance of the cholinergic system in the modulation of behaviors was studied using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a biomarker of effect. Cadmium (Cd) and dimethoate (DM) single exposition modified fetal programing for motor activity and social behavior at childhood and adulthood and leads to disturbs of the AChE activity. Exposition to the mixture of Cd and DM enhanced effects on fetal programing and AChE activity. The present results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that joint exposure to cadmium and dimethoate in uterus of rats seems additive and it is perturbs offspring development leading to harmful consequences on motor activity and social behavior, probably related to modulation of the cholinergic system. Our data suggest that added precautions regarding gestational exposure to metals and pesticide mixtures would be prudent to avoid the possibility of fetal programming.</p> 2020-09-05T03:44:29-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Fábio Anselmo, Daniel França Horta, Antonio Francisco Godinho Impact of Physical Activity and Stress on Academic Performance of MBBS Students of Rawalpindi Medical University 2020-09-08T10:26:40-04:00 Shahzaib Maqbool Hafiz Abu Safian Haider Mubeen Laraib Arsh Muhammad Sarfraz Khan Omaima Sundus <p>Trend of getting medical education is increasing day by day in our society. Our tough educational system and intricate pattern of medical education is rendering the medical students to become more stressed and physically inactive affecting directly or indirectly their academic achievements and deteriorating their cognitive and learning skills. The purpose of our study is to evaluate how physical activity and stress level affect academic performance of medical students.&nbsp; It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with sample size of 304. The study population was from all the five years of MBBS in Rawalpindi Medical University. The study duration was 1-month. Data collection was done through International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) and through perceived stress scale (PSS). Analysis was done through SPSS V. 23. The gender and academic performance are showing&nbsp;&nbsp; significant association with females being on high achievers’ side as compared to males. The physical activity and gender association was also significant with males being physically more active. However, the association of academic performance with stress level and physical activity was not significant with (P-value &gt;0.005). PSS-score between high achiever and low achiever was not significant with (P-value = 0.187) and confidence interval of 95%. However, Pearson's correlation between IPAQ score and academic performance was significant with (P-value = 0.036), It was negative showing that high IPAQ score Correlates with low academic performance. Male students were physically more active, obtaining relatively less percentage academically with less preponderance towards high level of stress as compared to female students.</p> 2020-09-08T10:26:40-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Shahzaib Maqbool, Hafiz Abu Safian, Haider Mubeen, Laraib Arsh, Muhammad Sarfraz Khan, Omaima Sundus High Levels of Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptides Are Associated with Adverse Outcomes in COVID-19 Disease: A Single Center Experience 2020-09-14T14:19:34-04:00 Kashif Bin Naeem Najiba Abdulrazzaq <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2, has caused widespread morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cardiac injury is reported to be common in hospitalized patients. We evaluated whether Pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide (proBNP) levels measured on admission in COVID-19 patients were associated with worse outcomes. A retrospective analysis of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were admitted between February 2020 and July 2020 to Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE. Patients were divided into two groups: normal proBNP (≤125 ng/L) and high proBNP (&gt;125 ng/L) upon admission. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the two groups. A total of 389 patients were studied. Overall, mean age was 50.2 years (range 16-94 years), 77.3% were males, 35.7% diabetics, 35.2% hypertensives and 5.6% had history of cardiovascular disease. Compared to the group with normal proBNP; patients with high proBNP on admission were: older, more diabetics and hypertensives, with more history of cardiovascular disease; they presented with abnormal chest radiograph; and had lower lymphocytes, higher neutrophils, lower eGFR, higher D-dimers, higher CRP and higher procalcitonin on admission laboratory tests. These patients had more risk of developing critical illness during the hospitalization, undergoing mechanical ventilation and risk of death. Elevated pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels on admission in COVID-19 patients may predict subsequent risk of developing critical illness, undergoing mechanical ventilation, and significant high risk of death.</p> 2020-09-14T14:19:33-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kashif Bin Naeem, Najiba Abdulrazzaq Knowledge of Modern Contraceptives Methods and Its Uptake Among Female Students of a Tertiary Educational Institution in South- South Nigeria 2020-09-14T14:29:48-04:00 O. J. Agbo A. O. Eguvbe P. W. Alabra D. O. Alagoa <p>Background: The use of modern forms of contraception can significantly improve women reproductive health. The rate of sexually transmitted disease, unwanted pregnancies and maternal morbidity and mortality can be significantly reduced following the use of modern forms of contraception. However, there is paucity of studies on the place of modern forms of contraception in improving women reproductive health in Yenagoa.</p> <p>Objective: This study aimed to access the knowledge of modern forms of contraceptive methods and its uptake among female students of Federal University Otueke, Bayelsa State.</p> <p>Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted among the female students of Federal University Otueke Bayelsa State. To elicit information about their knowledge of modern forms of contraceptives methods and its uptake. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain required information for the study from a total of 424 students.</p> <p>Results: A total of 424 female undergraduates students of the Federal University Otueke were enrolled for the study. The mean age group of the participants was 20.9±3.2 years. The study showed that most of responds have good knowledge of contraceptives (97.4 %). The awareness of family planning was 96.7%. The study showed that age was found to influence the awareness of contraceptives. (x2=11.8;df=3;p&lt;0.05). Most of the respondents had used oral contraceptive pills 146 (34.4%); followed by those that had used Condom 138 (32.5%).</p> <p>Conclusion: Our study showed that the respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge and awareness of family planning. However, it is worrisome to note that the uptake of modern forms of contraceptives was low. The importance of improving the uptake of these forms of contraceptives cannot be over-emphasized, especially in our societies where the protection of the reproductive health of young women is paramount.</p> 2020-09-14T14:29:48-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 O. J. Agbo, A. O. Eguvbe, P. W. Alabra, D. O. Alagoa Anesthetic Techniques for Urological Surgeries in Benue State University Teaching Hospital (BSUTH), Makurdi, Nigeria 2020-09-16T12:14:18-04:00 M. E. Efu E. I. Ogwuche B. A. Ojo B. A. Eke <p>Background: Urological surgery entails operating on the urinary system. Like every other surgery, they require anesthesia for the elimination of surgical pain. The organ to be operated as well as surgical approach determines the choice of anaesthesia used. This may be in the form of regional (including neuroaxial anesthesia) or general or even local anesthesia. This study was conducted to ascertain the anesthetic techniques employed for urological surgeries in the Benue State University Hospital (BSUTH), Makurdi, Nigeria.</p> <p>Methodology: This was a three-year retrospective study carried out in BSUTH, Makurdi, Nigeria. A total of 125 case files of eligible patients were retrieved from the records department following approval of an application. Relevant information was extracted from the patients’ folders and transferred into a prepared proforma. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 25 using simple statistics.</p> <p>Results: The age group with the highest number is that between 61 and 70 years, recording 40 (32.0%). The mean age was 54.0±20.4 Males were a clear majority with 119 cases accounting for 95.2% while only 6 cases (4.8%) involved females. The male to female ratio was 19.8:1. Most of the patients belonged to ASA II which recorded 70 (56.0%). Of the total of 125 diagnoses made, cancer of the prostate (CaP) was the highest with 63 (50.4%). The most common surgical procedure was prostate biopsy which was undertaken 58 times accounting for 46.4% of the procedures. Caudal block was employed most with 59 (47.2%). This was followed by Local infiltration with 30 (24.0%). Eighty-eight patients had surgery on day case basis while 37 patients underwent surgery as in-patients representing 70.4% and 29.6% of the study group respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion: Urological procedures are mostly infra-umbilical and are thus quite amenable to either regional or local anesthesia. This study has shown that caudal epidural block is the anesthetic technique of choice in urological surgery in this centre. Local anesthesia and sub-arachnoid block are next in that order. GA is not often employed. LA and regional techniques involve fewer disturbances to the respiratory system, and these were the anaesthetic methods mostly employed as established in this study.</p> 2020-09-16T12:14:18-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 M. E. Efu, E. I. Ogwuche, B. A. Ojo, B. A. Eke α-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antiradical Properties of Acacia macrostachya 2020-09-18T16:27:26-04:00 Hamidou Têeda Ganamé Yssouf Karanga Ousmane Ilboudo Wende-Konté Hazael Conania Nikiema Richard Wamtinga Sawadogo Issa Tapsoba <p>In this work, the anti-diabetic activity of three extracts of <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> was investigated by following the inhibitory effect of these extracts on -glucosidase using the in vitro model. The antiradical activity of these extracts was also determined. Methanol extracts of root and stem barks showed a very significant inhibitory effect against the enzyme activity of -glucosidase with IC<sub>50</sub> 2.487 ± 0.441 µg/mL and 1.650 ± 0.229 µg/mL respectively. For antiradical activity, the same extracts presented the highest scavenging of the radical DPPH<sup>●</sup> with IC<sub>50 </sub>values of 9.307 ± 0.262 µg/mL and 5.242 ± 0.068 µg/mL respectively. With the cationic radical ABTS<sup>●+</sup>, IC<sub>50 </sub>varied from 45.049 ± 0.730 µg/mL for methanolic root barks extract to 14.136 ± 0.161 µg/mL for methanolic extract from stem barks. Thus, the methanol extracts of the root and stem barks of <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> possess compounds with very interesting anti-diabetic and antiradical properties and could justify its traditional use.</p> 2020-09-18T16:27:26-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hamidou Têeda Ganamé, Yssouf Karanga, Ousmane Ilboudo, Wende-Konté Hazael Conania Nikiema, Richard Wamtinga Sawadogo, Issa Tapsoba Hypertriglycedemic Pancreatitis: Is It Time to Embrace Plasmapheresis? 2020-09-08T13:50:34-04:00 Charles Junior Limula Faisal Ozair <p>Acute pancreatitis is a medical condition that is caused by a number of aetiologies including gall stones, infections, alcohol excess and hypertriglycedemia. This condition has mortality ranging from 2% to as high as 30% particularly in patients with persistent organ failure. Management of acute pancreatitis usually involve treating the underlying insult while minimizing further damage and supporting the patient. Acute pancreatitis due to severe hypertriglycedemia is a medical emergency associated with serious complications hence timely diagnosis and interventions are paramount.</p> 2020-09-08T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Charles Junior Limula, Faisal Ozair Bouchout's Tuberculoma 2020-09-15T12:41:23-04:00 Mehdi Khamaily Wafae Akioud Joumany Brahim Salem Sidi Dahi Taoufik Abdellaoui Yassine Mouzari Karim Reda Abdelbarre Oubaaz <p>Tuberculosis is a chronic infection that is still endemic in Morocco.Eye involvement, however, is quite rare.We report the discovery of Bouchut's tuberculoma in a 52-year-old immunocompetent patient following a progressive decline in visual acuity in both eyes.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-15T12:41:23-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mehdi Khamaily, Wafae Akioud, Joumany Brahim Salem, Sidi Dahi, Taoufik Abdellaoui, Yassine Mouzari, Karim Reda, Abdelbarre Oubaaz Flutamide Induced Liver Injury in Female Patients 2020-09-14T14:37:28-04:00 Nikola Malešević Goran Bokan Vlado Đajić <p>Flutamide is the active substance of the drug and belongs to the group of drugs that have antiandrogenic effect. Flutamide prevents the action of male sex hormones, i.e. suppresses the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Primarily, the indications for the use of flutamide refer to males and the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. It is also used in the treatment of patients with testicles surgically removed, and in patients who have not responded to another type of therapy or do not tolerate other types of treatment. The efficacy of flutamide has also been proven in the treatment of acne, hirsutism and alopecia in men and women with polycystic ovaries. It is important to emphasize that flutamide can cause severe side effects, above all liver damage, so it is not justified to use it in the treatment of conditions other than prostate cancer. Numerous data on hepatotoxicity (retrospective, prospective studies, case reports, surveillance study) were available in literature, which ranged from asymptomatic to acute, fulminant hepatitis that ended in transplantation, i.e. fatal outcome. In our paper, a review of the literature with case reports of notably hepatotoxicity is presented along with a case from our clinical practice.</p> 2020-09-14T14:37:28-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nikola Malešević, Goran Bokan, Vlado Đajić Nanomedicine and Immunotherapy for Cancers 2020-09-17T11:06:43-04:00 A. A. Navas N. Doreswamy P. J. Joseph Francis <p>Nanomedicine contributes to cancer therapeutics in several ways, harnessing some of the remarkable properties of nanomaterials to target tumor cells with increasing specificity. Nano-scale therapeutic strategies enable the simultaneous transport of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs across physical and physiological barriers like the blood-brain barrier. Alternative routes of drug administration, such as the intranasal route, have become viable, with more promising therapies for highly lethal tumors like glioblastomas. Cancer nanomedicine allows increased solubility and bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs, reducing their toxicity.</p> <p>Multi-drug delivery systems such as dendrimers, noble metal nanoparticle drug delivery systems, nanoparticle-based theranostics, and nano-biomarkers may well bring about a sea change in cancer therapeutics. This review presents an overview of the scope of cancer nanomedicine, including immunotherapy for cancer.</p> 2020-09-16T12:08:14-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 N. Doreswamy, A. A. Navas, P. J. Joseph Francis Review article Epidemiology of Talaromycosis (Penicilliosis) Marneffei in India: An Update 2020-09-16T15:33:05-04:00 Harish C. Gugnani Neelam Sood <p>Talaromycosis marneffei (Penicilliosis marneffei) caused by a thermally dimorphic fungus, <em>Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei</em> is emerging as an important systemic opportunistic mycosis in HIV infected patients in several countries in Southeast Asia and in northeast India. This study presents an update on epidemiological and clinical aspects of talaromycosis marneffiei in India. A thorough search of literature was done in Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar, for accessing relevant data. Fifty-three cases of this disease have originated from the Manipur State. Several cases have been reported from Assam, a few are also known from Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Delhi and Maharashtra. Clinical manifestations of disseminated infection in AIDS patients are fever, anemia, weight loss, weakness, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, respiratory signs, and characteristic skin lesions. The bamboo rat (Cannomys badius) has been found to be a natural host of <em>Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei</em> in Manipur. It is noteworthy that one of the ten T. marneffei isolates from bamboo rats shared the genotype with a human isolate from that area providing evidence for common source of infection for the rats and humans and host to host transmission. Natural reservoir of <em>T. marneffei</em> has not been established, though it has been demonstrated that the fungus can survive in sterile soil for several weeks, but only for a few days in unsterile soil. There is need for comprehensive investigation of <em>T. marneffei </em>infection in humans, and for occurrence of the fungus in bamboo rats and in soils of the rat burrows in India employing conventional and molecular techniques.</p> 2020-09-16T15:33:05-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Harish C. Gugnani, Neelam Sood